Karel Čapek (Czech: [ˈkarɛl ˈtʃapɛk] (About this sound listen); 9 January 1890 – 25 December 1938) was a Czech writer of the early 20th century. He had multiple roles throughout his career, including playwright, dramatist, essayist, publisher, literary reviewer, photographer and art critic. Nonetheless, he is best known for his science fiction including his novel War with the Newts and the play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), which introduced the word robot. He also wrote many politically charged works dealing with the social turmoil of his time. Largely influenced by American pragmatic liberalism,he campaigned in favor of free expression and utterly despised the rise of both fascism and communism in Europe.