Valerie Elise Plame Wilson (née Plame; born August 13, 1963), known as Valerie Plame, Valerie E. Wilson, and Valerie Plame Wilson, is a former operations officer who worked at the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), a writer, and a spy novelist. As the subject of the 2003 Plame affair, also known as the CIA leak scandal, Plame had her identity as covert officer of the CIA leaked to the press by members of the George W. Bush administration and subsequently made public. In the aftermath of the scandal, Richard Armitage in the State Department was identified as one source of the information, and I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby, Chief of Staff to Vice President Dick Cheney, was convicted of lying to investigators. After a failed appeal, President George W. Bush commuted Libby's sentence, and in 2018 President Donald Trump pardoned him. No one was formally charged with leaking the information.